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Growing 101


Grow a beautiful garden with the power of water with help from our gardening supply store. Based in Fountain, Colorado, Gone Hydro is your source for hydroponic gardening systems and supplies.

The NPK's of Growing


Nitrogen is essential for plant growth. Nitrogen is a part of every living cell. The two forms of nitrogen which plants take up are in the ammonia (NH4) and nitrate (N03) ion forms. Most agronomic crops take up most of their nitrogen in the nitrate ion form. Plants will utilize N in the (NH4) ion form if present and available to the plant. Lack of nitrogen and chlorophyll means that plants cannot utilize sunlight as an energy source to carry on essential functions such as nutrient uptake. Research has proven foliar or leaf applications of nitrogen is one form of application that can supplement a plants nitrogen requirements during the growing cycle.

  • Nitrogen is necessary for chlorophyll synthesis and as a part of the chlorophyll molecule is involved in photosynthesis.
  • Nitrogen is also a component of amino acids.
  • Nitrogen is needed for growth of plants.

From the Greek words “nitron genes” meaning “nitre” and “forming” and the Latin word “nitrum”.Discovered in Scotland by Daniel Rutherford in 1772.


Phosphate is a very important plant nutrient (macro-nutrient) needed for the plant to complete its normal production cycle. The highest level of P in young plants is found in tissue at the growing stage. As plants mature most of the P moves into the flower and then to the seed or fruit.

  • Phosphorus is needed for photosynthesis.
  • Phosphorus is necessary for plant respiration.
  • Phosphorus is essential for energy storage and transfer.
  • Phosphorus is needed for cell division.
  • Phosphorus is necessary for cell enlargement.
  • Phosphorus is essential for several other plant processes.

From the Greek word “phosphoros” meaning “bringer of light” (an ancient name for the planet Venus?). Discovered in Germany by Hennig Brand in 1669.


An important function of Potassium is it’s influence in efficient water use. It helps in the process of opening and closing of plant leaf pores, called the stomata. Potassium is found in cell walls which surround stomata. Adequate amounts of Potassium can increase stress conditions on plants during drought conditions. Potassium is also responsible for producing quality crops.

  • Potassium is essential for protein synthesis.
  • Potassium is important in the breakdown of carbohydrates, providing energy for plants.
  • Potassium helps to control ionic balance.
  • Potassium is important in the translocation of minerals.
  • Potassium helps plants to overcome effects of disease.
  • Potassium is essential in the fruit formation stage.
  • Potassium helps improve shelf life of fruits and vegetables.
  • Potassium is involved in the activation of more than 60 enzymes which regulate the rates of major plant growth reactions.

From the English word “potash” and the Arabic word “qali” meaning alkali (“K” comes from the Latin word “kalium”). Discovered in England by Sir Humphrey Davy in 1807.



The temperature of a growing environment is crucial to maintain optimal growth and maximize the genetic potential of the plant. The ideal temperature will vary given the stage of growth and the type of plant being grown. During vegetative growth, plants are growing very rapidly and can tolerate higher temperatures than during fruiting and flowering. A typical safe range for vegetative plants is 75-80°F during the light (day) period and 55-60°F during the dark (night) period. For fruiting and flowering growth, the temperature range is 70-75°F during the day and 50-60°F during the night period. Monitoring the growing environment with a thermometer that has minimum and maximum temperature logging is a valuable tool to keep track of the fluctuation of temperature throughout the course of the day.



Humidity is the measure of the volume of water in the air at a given temperature. Higher humidity (>75%) can lead to slowed growth due to reduced evapotranspiration and can increase the potential for disease that favors high moisture, such as powdery mildew. A circulation fan in the growing room and frequent air exchanges can reduce the amount of humidity in the air which will maintain an ideal environment for plant growth. Low levels of humidity (<20%) can also reduce growth by reducing the amount of moisture around the leaves of the plant which creates a situation of water stress in the plant. Using evaporative cooling or adding a humidifier to your growing environment can increase the level of humidity in the air and maximize the plants osmotic potential.


Pest &Disease

A difficult aspect of growing plants is how to deal with harmful insects and diseases. Pest problems can be dealt with by using clean plant stock, minimization of exposure to outside environments and monitoring consistently. If insects do make it into your environment, using beneficial insects to combat the harmful ones or spraying with a variety of products that are targeted is the last resort. Preventing disease is not always possible, but using clean plant stock, keeping the environment clean, and preventing environmental conditions that favor the disease are the best steps to take.


     Container Capacities


724140 5”x 5”x 6.5” square pot black jumbo senior 724150
724150 5”x 5”x 6.5” square pot white jumbo senio 2.8 qt. / 2.65 liter
724160 6”x 6”x 7” square pot black magnum 4.35 qt. / 4.1 liter
724425 5.5”x 5.5”x 6” square pot white jumbo 3.15 qt. / 3 liter
724525 Am Hydro Perfect Pot 1.75 gal. / 7 qt. / 6.6 liter
724540 1 gallon nursery pot 1 gal. / 4 qt. / 3.78 liter
724545 2 gallon nursery pot 2 gal. / 8 qt. / 7.57 liter
724550 3 gallon nursery pot 3 gal. / 12 qt. / 11.35 liter
724555 5 gallon nursery pot 5 gal. / 20 qt. / 19 liter




Pot Size # of Pots per 3 CF Bag
4” square pot 147
1 gallon pot 21
2 gallon pot 10
3 gallon pot 7
5 gallon pot 4


Sunlight Supply

Sunlight Supply Manufacturing Facility - Woodland, Washington

Soil-less sky farming: rooftop hydroponics on NYC restaurant

HYDROSHOW - Season 1 Episode 1 - Hydroponics Magazine Show

Hydroponic Lettuce



Sunlight Supply® - World's Greatest

See why Sunlight Supply® is the "World's Greatest" in the industry. We are the only company in the industry manufacturing horticultural light fixtures in the United States. Our product offering of over 5,000 different products include everything needed for indoor, hydroponic, organic and greenhouse gardening. We also distribute a wide variety of products for the outdoor gardener.

Sunlight Supply® Manufacturing Facility - Woodland, WA

Sunlight Supply offers an American made product that is often imitated but never duplicated. Watch this video to get an inside peek of our manufacturing facilities and to meet some of our hard working employees. Proud to be American Made!

Always choose Sunlight Supply® for a successful growing experience

Sun System has become the #1 leading brand of grow lights for indoor and greenhouse gardening. Whether you are a hobbyist growing one orchid or a large commercial greenhouse, we have the experience and products you need.

Sunlight Supply® Presents The Blazer Airtight Seal

The Sun System Blazer has the most airtight seal on the market. Sun System now features 7 new design improvements in the Blazer, Magnum XXXL, Blockbuster, Cool Sun, Yield Master Supreme and Low Rider Reflectors.


Sunlight Supply® Presents The Fast FitTM

Our experienced research and development team designed and engineered interlocking components that simply slide together, while maintaining excellent stability. Only after the heavy duty steel framed FAST FIT - Light & Tray Stands passed endurance tests, did it earn the "Toolless Seal of Approval".


How To Assemble The Fast FitTM

The unique patented FAST FIT is the only LIGHT & TRAY STAND on the market that easily assembles in minutes without tools.

Ordinary LIGHT & TRAY STANDS require fumbling around with nuts and bolts, whileFAST FIT uses the "no hassle" SIMPLE INTERLOCKING TECHNOLOGY. Toolless assembly light and tray stands fit all popular brand tray sizes.

Sunlight Supply® Presents The Flame Defender - 30 second demo

The Flame Defender automatic self contained fire extinguisher. Requires no plumbing or wiring -- just simply install by attaching vertically to the wall or ceiling. The Flame Defender is a multi-purpose dry chemical extinguisher suitable for electrical fires. Available in 3 sizes. ABC Rated. "The Cheapest Insurance Policy You Can Buy".

Available exclusively from Sunlight Supply, Inc. Specializing in the wholesale of indoor horticulture, organics and hydrogardening supplies.

A Cool Sun® is Born - Sunlight Supply® Manufacturing Video

See for yourself how a Sun System® Cool Sun Reflector® is fabricated and assembled in Woodland, Washington using US and globally sourced parts.

Adjust-A-Wings: How to create "seasonal" settings for optimal performance

Adjust-A-Wings inventor - Paul Cronk demonstrates how to create "seasonal" settings using the versatile Adjust-A-Wings in a Sun Hut growing environment.

The Phresh Filter Difference - Carbon Air Filters for Hydroponic Gardening from Sunlight Supply

Phresh Filters ~ For The Cleanest Air Around! Weighs half the weight of competitive filters. Aluminum tops and bases for reduced weight.

How to set up a Sun System grow light from Sunlight Supply

See just how simple it is to set up a grow light in this easy to understand video. Sun System offers the highest quality, best performing reflectors and ballasts on the market today. .

Flame Defender - Fire Extinguisher for Indoor Growing Environments

The Flame Defender is an automatic self contained fire extinguisher that requires no plumbing or wiring -- just simply install by attaching vertically to the wall or ceiling.

Flame Defender (2 kg size) in Action! Automatic Self-Contained Fire Extinguisher

The Flame Defender is an automatic self contained fire extinguisher that requires no plumbing or wiring -- just simply install by attaching vertically to the wall or ceiling.

Flame Defender Demonstration - Self Activated Fire Extinguisher

The Flame Defender is an automatic self contained fire extinguisher that requires no plumbing or wiring -- just simply install by attaching vertically to the wall or ceiling. The Flame Defender is a multi-purpose dry chemical extinguisher suitable for electrical fires. Available in 3 sizes. ABC Rated.

Adjust-A-Wings: Components, Assembly and Practical Usage Tips. Presented by Paul Cronk / Inventor

Adjust-A-Wings (Patent No. US 6,053,624) reflectors are incredibly power efficient and versatile systems. They may be adjusted to wide settings & positioned very close to growing plants for maximum light intensity (growing power) & area coverage.

Hydro Innovations CO2 Products

Hydro Innovations co2 product line video that inlcudes the HydroGEN PRO water-cooled co2 generator,MiniGEN co2 generator, Water Gate water valve, natural gas converion kit, Flotec pumps and Hydro Innovations Universal Co2 Monitor.

Magnum XXXL Reflector - Grow light for hydrogardening from Sunlight Supply

Sun System Magnum XXXL Reflectors are the largest in the industry. Gasketed glass and retention bars completely seal the Magnum XXXL. Premium Quality And Superior Performance. Available in 6" & 8" sizes.

Global Garden Friends - Ultimate Cage

Watch as CEO and Founder Mike Donaldson explains how to use the Ultimate Plant Cage™ in this brief, easy to understand video.

Titan Flo-N-Gro Assembly Video

The 12 site Flo-N-Gro system with the Oceanus 1® controller is designed to be simple to use. The system allows the grower to have the flexibiltiy of an ebb and flow garden with minimum maintenance of their hydroponic system.

Titan Selene How To Video

Selene Series CO2 generators help your plants reach their highest potential!


Titan Controls Atlas 1 Video

The Atlas 1 delivers precise CO2 control! This easy to use controller is the leading edge in CO2 release & control in your growing environment. Just dial in your set point and the Atlas 1 does the rest of the work for you!


Titan Controls Eos 1 Video

The Eos 1 is the complete solution for your humidity requirements. It features a powder coated durable steel chassis, piggyback cordset for easy wiring and convenient switch to flip from humidify to dehumidify depending on your gardens needs. The Eos 1 will control any 120 Volt/15 Amp humidity gear on the market today.


ORCA Grow Film Video

ORCA grow film is 94% reflective across the full visible spectrum and provides 99% diffusion. Light reflects evenly regardless of incident angle thus reducing hot spots. ORCA grow film is 100% light-tight, thermally reflecting, waterproof, and will not yellow from UV light.


Phresh Filter Carbon Story

Listen to Bill Graham explain the benefits of the Phresh Filter Carbon. Phresh Intake Filters remove 99.9% of bugs, molds, pollen and dust. Use for intake filtering, scrubbing and low intensity exhaust filtering. Ultra light filters use advanced nano carbon felt technology.


Phresh Intake Filter Video

Phresh Intake Filters remove 99.9% of bugs, molds, pollen and dust. Use for intake filtering, scrubbing and low intensity exhaust filtering. Ultra light filters use advanced nano carbon felt technology.


Phresh Silencer Video

Phresh Silencers feature sound reducing acoustic foam that decreases fan noise by up to 50%. Attach a Phresh Silencer to the intake or exhaust side of an inline fan. Use on both sides for maximum sound reduction. Use with fans in conjunction with carbon filters, light systems and more.


Hang Time Drying Rack

Use the Hang Time Drying Rack to easily dry flowers and herbs. Includes a carabiner clip to make hanging simple.


Ideal Air Portable Air Conditioner Units

These easy to use portable air conditioners allow the user to roll them into place, plug them in and have instant air conditioning. With the available exhaust adapter and outside air intake the unit can be placed in the room you are cooling and the hot air created by the air conditioner can be ducted outside. The air required to cool the machine can also be supplied from outside the room and ducted to the unit. Or the unit can be placed outside the room and the 6" supply tubes can be ducted into the space needing cooling.


Ideal Air Commercial Dehumidifiers

If too much moisture is a issue we have you covered. These commercial grade dehumidifiers will remove condensation. Made from a heavy gauge powder coated steel these units are extremely durable and reliable. With the included brackets they can either be placed on the floor or mounted on the wall to free up valuable floor space. They have a 10.5 pint reservoir or can be hooked up to permanent drain if needed. These units come with a washable pre filter and are auto restart in the event of a power failure.


Ideal Air Mini Split Installation

The Ideal Air Mini Split Air Conditioners offer flexible stainless steel pre-charged line sets with quick connect fitting allowing for easy D.I.Y installations. High energy efficiency performance is standard on all Ideal Air Mini Split Air Conditioners.


Ideal Air Product Maintenance

Ideal-Air, a subsidiary of Sunlight Supply, Inc., is a supplier of commercial-grade air conditioners, dehumidifiers, ducting & related equipment, based in the Pacific Northwest. We specialize in products for the Do-it-Yourself person. We hope you will give our commercial-grade air conditioners, dehumidifiers, ducting & related equipment, a try. We are confident that you will be satisfied for years to come with Ideal-Air.


EC Shake

Product #716010 The EC Shake - This revolutionary EC meter is powered by a magnet instead of a battery! A gentle shaking action generates the energy to power this simple, yet sophisticated meter. With just a few easy steps you will get a quick & accurate reading of the electrical conductivity (EC) of your nutrient solution. This patented meter will completely simplify your growing experience and success.


The Phresh Filter Difference

Demand RC-48 Activated Carbon: To ensure total air filtration, there are several important factors to consider. The first and most important factor is carbon grade choice. Grade RC-48 carbon. Because we use the purest available "activated virgin" carbon and our granulated carbon has more surface area than pelletized carbon, we can use significantly less carbon, thus making our filters half the weight of competitive filters.


Titan Controls Atlas 3

The Atlas 3 is easy to set up and simple to use. It controls and monitors CO2 from 400 to 5000 parts per million (PPM) and offers CO2 enrichment or CO2 exhaust features. Plastic enclosure resists dust and moisture. Another innovative product brought to you by Titan Controls!


RapidStart Rooting Enhancer

RapidStart enhances your growing experience by delivering a powerful blend of premium plant extracts, amino acids, and nutrients generating explosive root growth. Using Rapidstart stimulates prolific root branching and development of fine root hairs that increase nutrient uptake and grow healthier, whiter roots. Using RapidStart will make your plants explode! Use during the entire growing cycle in all types of growing media, including coco. RapidStart, strong finish; bigger is always better!


EZ-Roots Aeration System

EZ,Roots aeration system has done it again! Breathable fabric for quality drainage and aeration. Eliminates misguided roots promoting strong lateral root development and vigorous plant growth. Regulates substrate temperature during cold and high temps. Great for pond and fountain flora applications


Flame Defender Self Activated Fire Extinguisher

The Flame Defender is an automatic self contained fire extinguisher that requires no plumbing or wiring -- just simply install by attaching vertically to the wall or ceiling. The Flame Defender is a multi-purpose dry chemical extinguisher suitable for electrical fires. Available in 3 sizes. ABC Rated. "The Cheapest Insurance Policy You Can Buy". Available exclusively from Sunlight Supply, Inc. Specializing in the wholesale of indoor horticulture, organics and hydrogardening supplies.


Titan Controls Helios 14

The Helios 14 - Twenty-four (24) light controller with 24 hour timer provides up to 24,000 watts of lighting control. This 'Professional Series' commercial lighting controller is built using industrial grade Allen Bradley components, one of the most respected names in the industry! And it's built right here in the USA!


Acid: This is the term for a media or solution with a pH less than 7.0 and is measured using a digital pH meter or with litmus paper

Aeration: The method of adding air or oxygen to a root zone or a nutrient solution

Aeroponics: A method of growing plants in which the roots are supplied with necessary nutrients via misting with a nutrient solution that is pumped through sprayers

Alkaline: This is the term for a media or solution that has a pH greater than 7.0 and is also referred to as basic

Amendment: Changing the composition of a growing media to improve the structure, nutrient content, water holding capacity, cation exchange capacity, or air porosity

Auxin: A plant hormone that promotes root development and stem elongation. The plant created form is known as indole acetic acid (IAA) while the synthetically produced form is indole-butyric acid (IBA).

Bacteria: Single celled microorganisms that can be beneficial or harmful to plant growth depending on the species and their function with respect to plants

Beneficial insects/microorganisms: These organisms work synergistically with plants to defend against harmful insects and diseases and to increase uptake of plant nutrients

Buffering capacity: The ability of a media or solution to resist change in pH fluctuations

Carbon Dioxide: As known as CO2, this odorless gas is an integral part of plant growth and can increase the amount of photosynthesis that a plant has the capacity to do at given light levels if the CO2 level is increased up to 1500ppm. Ambient air is in the range of 300-400ppm.

Carbohydrate: A combination of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Sugars and starches are the most commonly used to feed root zone microorganisms

Chelate: A molecule that bonds with minerals to increase the uptake into the plant and prevents interactions with other minerals that could render the mineral unavailable

Chlorosis: General yellowing of a plant due to lack of chlorophyll production during photosynthesis. This is typically related to pH, nitrogen deficiency, or iron deficiency

Compost: Decayed organic matter from plant or animal sources that can provide plants with nutrients needed for growth

Cotyledon: The first "leaves" of a dicot plant that emerge when a seed is planted and serve as the nutrient source until the plant develops roots for uptake of minerals

Cutting: A portion of the plant that is cut off to generate a new, identical plant by rooting

Damping Off: A term that is applied to a dieback of cuttings and seedlings caused by the disease pythium

Dioecious: A plant that has male and female organs on separate plant, ie one plant makes the flowers (female) and one plant makes the pollen (male)

EC meter: A device that measures the electrical conductivity of a solution or media. This is helpful to determine concentration of nutrients or salts affecting plant growth

Electrode: A conductor that establishes an electrical arc with a non-metallic part of the circuit

Elongation: When a plant begins to grow taller or longer creating greater distance between the internodes of the plant

Feed: To supply nutrient to plants via a solution or a dry fertilizer

Fertigation: Supplying the fertilizer to a plant via the irrigation water

Foliage: The leaves of a plant

Foliar Feeding: Spraying or misting the plant leaves with nutrients that the plant can absorb

Fulvic acid: A liquid part of humus that is light golden in color and has the ability to increase uptake of nutrients into plant tissues

Gene: The part of the plant's makeup that determines it capability for production and resistance to disease

Gypsum: A naturally occurring mineral complex that is used to lower the pH of a growing media

Hormone: A chemical that controls the growth and development of plants: auxins, cytokinens, gibberellins, ethylene, and abscisic acid

Humidity: The amount of water in a given volume of air at a given temperature relative to the maximum amount of water it could hold

Humic acid: The liquid portion of humus that comes from decomposed organic matter

Hygrometer: A device that measures relative humidity

Inert: A solution or media that is chemically non-reactive

Leaching: Dissolving or washing out soluble salts from a growing media

Leaf curl: Malformation of a leaf due to over/under fertilization, over-watering, or damage caused by insects or disease

Lime: A naturally occurring mined mineral complex that will raise the pH of a growing media

Litmus paper: A chemically sensitive paper that is used to determine pH

Lumen: A unit of measurement of light that is used to rate the output of light based on the input of electrical watts

Macronutrient: A classification of the major nutrients required for plant growth: nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium

Micronutrients: A classification of the minor nutrients required for plant growth also known as trace elements: iron, boron, copper, molybdenum, zinc, manganese, nickel, and cobalt

Moisture meter: A device that measures the amount of moisture in a growing media or soil

Nanometer (nm): 0.00000001 of a meter, used as a scale to measure wavelengths of light spectrums

Nutrient: A mineral that a plant can uptake and assimilate into its tissue, plant food

Organic: Carbon based. In horticulture, organic means natural. Organic fertilizers are made in nature, not in chemistry labs

Peat moss: Moss that is slowly decayed in conditions of extreme moisture and low temperatures

pH: the power of hydrogen. This is a scale of 1 to 14 that expresses the number of free hydrogen ions in solution. Most plants grown hydroponically thrive at a pH between 5.5 to 6.3.

pH meter: an electronic device that measures pH

Photoperiod: The length of light during a 24 hour period

Photosynthesis: The conversion of light energy to chemical energy (carbohydrates) by plants

Propagate: To grow a new plant by taking a cutting from an existing plant and rooting the cutting or by germinating a seed

Prune: Altering a plant by cutting leaves, stems, shoots, flowers, or fruits

Rhizosphere: The area directly surrounding the roots of a plant. This area is where beneficial microorganism thrive

Rockwool: A growing media that is made from fibers created by heating volcanic rock at high temperatures

Root bound: When the roots of a plant are inhibited from normal growth from being confined in a container

Salt: An ionic compound whose cation comes from a base and whose anion comes from an acid. Buildup of salts in growing media can cause plants to burn

Soluble: Able to be dissolved into water

Starch: A complex carbohydrate that is manufactured by plants and stored

Stomata: An opening in the leaves of the plant through which the plant takes up nutrients, releases water, and takes up CO2

Sugar: A simple carbohydrate that is manufacture by plants via photosynthesis

Tap Root: The main root of a plant that grows from the seed. The lateral roots form from the tap root.

Transpire: The plant releasing water through the somata

Trellis: A frame or netting that trains or supports plants

Ultraviolet (UV): Short wavelengths of light that exist outside of the visible spectrum past blue and violet

Wetting agent: A compound that reduces the surface tension of water making it easier for a media to absorb